some large-scale state-perpetrated crimes


list is incomplete and in progress

(head of) statewhen (Gregorian)wherewhatnote
numerous statesnumerous timesnumerous placessystematically debased, enslaved, trafficked, and/or sacrificed other humans
Darius I-522Persiamassacred Magi civilians
Qin-260Changpingburied alive Zhao captivesSima Qian
Mithridates VI-88Anatoliamassacred Roman civilians
Rome135Judeamassacred Jewish civilians
Cao Cao193Xumassacred civilians
Ran Min350north Chinamassacred Wu Hu population
Al-Mahdi783Abbasidexecuted "heretics"
Genghis Khan1206 - 1227numerous placesmassacred Chinese, Mongol, Muslim, Persian, and other civilians and several cities
Khanate1221 - 1264Sichuanmassacred Sichuanese population
several states1548 - 1872Kashmirsystematic destruction of Shia population
Athens-416Melosmassacred Melian population
Rome-264 - 404Romemade gladiators fight to the death for entertainment
Crassus, Pompey-71south Italycrucified slave captives
Julius Caesar-55Gaulmassacred Germani and Gaul civilians
Rome61, 77Angleseymassacred Druid population
Byzantine1209Constantinoplemassacred Latin civilians
Pope Innocent III1209 - 1229south Franceexecuted Cathar civilians
Rome-149Carthagemassacred Carthaginian population
several states-48, 272, 391, 642Alexandriaburned books
Jewish insurrectionaries115Cyrenaicamassacred Roman and Greek civiliansCassius Dio